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Here you will be introduced to the terminology of Hindu astrology to enable you to comprehend the system. The astronomy relevant to predictive astrology will be discussed in the first place.
ECLIPTIC : Ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun.
ZODIAC & ASTROLOGY
Zodiac is an imaginary belt in the heavens extending to 9º on both sides of ecliptic containing 12 signs of 30º each. The first sign starts from 0º of the sign Aries (Mesha) and extends to 30º. Each degree can be divided into 60 minutes, and each minute can be divided into 60 seconds for the purpose of precision in calculations.
From the earth, the signs appear to be moving in a clockwise motion. The earth has two revolutions: one around the Sun which is completed in 365,25 days, and the other around its own axis which is completed in 24 hours. Due to earth's movement around the Sun, when the Sun is viewed in the background of the zodiac it appears from the earth that the Sun moves/rotates at the speed of 1º per day in an anti-clockwise direction. The other revolution of the earth i.e. around its own axis causes rise of all the 12 signs in the horizon or east in a period of 24 hours.The zodiac is also divided into 27 nakshatras (constellations) consisting of groups of fixed stars. The names and extent of nakshatras in zodiac are being separately indicated in the table appended at the end of the book.
Equinox is the time when the Sun apparently crosses the equator and the day and the night are equal. It is believed that when the Sun touches its equinoctial point of zero degree of Aries, the earth moves westward with reference to a particular constellation. The zodiac seen or measured from the beginning of Aries from the westward moving equinoctial point is known as moving or tropical zodiac. When zero degree of Aries is reckoned from a particular star, the same is known as fixed or sidereal zodiac. The Vedic system of Astrology uses the concept of fixed zodiac and that is why the Sun enters Aries almost on identical dates every year. In the Vedic system of Astrology, when we are speaking of various signs we are actually speaking about the fixed constellations with the same name. The Vedic system of Astrology is known as Nirayana System.
The ayanamsa is the distance between the fixed and the moving zodiacs.
SOLAR TIME :
We measure time based on the concept of the solar day. It is defined as an average time period of the successive passages of the Sun over a given meridian. It is exactly 24 hours and is known as the mean solar day.
SIDEREAL TIME :
The time required for a 360 degree rotation of the earth around its axis, causing a given star in the sky to return to the same position in relation to the earth is known as the sidereal day and this period is about 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds.
Planetary longitude is the angular distance measured eastward on the ecliptic from the starting point of the fixed zodiac and it gives the apparent position of the planet in a particular sign at a given time.
Longitude is the angular distance of any place on the earth's surface, east or west of a standard meridian (e.g. that of Greenwich), measured in degrees up to 180º east or west, or in units of time (1 hour = 15º). With the help of the longitude of a particular place with reference to Greenwich (0º), we calculate the local mean time for that place. As the earth rotates from west to east (anti-clockwise), those places east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich Time and those to the west will be behind Greenwich Time. For each degree of longitude, there is a difference of four minutes in time.
Latitude is the angular distance on its meridian of any place of the earth's surface from the equator. It is measured in degrees and minutes from the equator towards either the North Pole or the South Pole. The equator represents 0 degree latitude. Latitudes are thus lines drawn parallel to the equator.
Note:Even if you find it difficult to understand astronomical terms, you can proceed with further study. The lack of clear understanding of the astronomical terminology will not create hurdles in your understanding of the Predictive Astrology. Predictive Astrology and Astronomy are two different sciences. Predictive Astrology is based on Astronomy but the deep knowledge of Astronomy is not at all necessary for predictive analysis.
NATAL CHART/BIRTH HOROSCOPE
Natal chart or radical chart or horoscope or natal positions are the positions of the ascendant and planets in various signs as noted for the time of the birth. Natal positions, therefore, are fixed. The planetary positions noted with reference to a particular chart for subsequent periods are known as transits or transit positions. .
Conjunction is the apparent coincidence or proximity of two or more celestial objects as viewed from the earth. The conjunction can be exact or close. If the difference in longitudes happens to be less than one degree, the resulting conjunction is known as an exact conjunction. If the difference in longitudes is within five degrees, the same is known as a close conjunction.
The aspects are partial and full. In the Vedic system of Astrology, we are concerned with only full aspects. Each planet is believed to aspect fully the seventh house, reckoned from the placement of the former.
In addition to this i.e. the seventh aspect, planets posited outside the orbit of the earth as well as Rahu and Ketu have additional special full aspects as under:
aspects third and tenth houses from its location.
b) Mars aspects fourth and eight houses from its location.
c) Jupiter, Rahu and Ketu aspect fifth and ninth houses from their location.
Planets influence other houses/planets aspected by them favorably or unfavorably, depending upon their functional nature in the horoscope. The principle of exact or close aspect is identical to exact or close conjunction i.e. when a planet casts its aspect on another planet(s) or on the most effective point of house(s) within an orb of one degree, the aspect is known as an exact aspect. If the difference in planetary longitudes is within five degrees, then the aspect is known as a close aspect.
The conjunctions or aspects with more than five degrees of longitudinal difference are wide conjunctions or aspects. These do not have permanent impact in life except the short lived transit influences on the planets involved in wide conjunctions or aspects. The wide aspects give their results in later part of life, say around 60 years or after.
The aspect of the planet will be effective corresponding to the strength of the planet. If the aspecting planet is weak due to any reason including debilitation its effectiveness will be weak and limited.
The close aspect of a functional malefic will act as a damaging force and the close aspect of a functional benefic will act as a helping force.
GENERAL AND PARTICULAR SIGNIFICATIONS OF PLANETSThe general significations of a planet mean the aspects ruled by that planet. For example, the Sun rules father, status of the native, heart, digestive system, etc., irrespective of the lordship of the Sun in a particular nativity. The particular significations of a planet mean the significations of its mooltrikona house, the significations of its natal house and the significations of its transiting house i.e. the house where its mooltrikona sign is placed, the house where the planet is placed in the natal chart and the house where the planet is placed in transit.
PLANETARY AVASTHAS (STATES)
The planetary avasthas are the conditions in which a planet is placed. The prominent avasthas and the results produced are as under :
a) INFANCY: Whenever the longitude of a planet in a particular sign is less than 5 degrees, it is said to be in the state of infancy. Such a planet is incapable of fully promoting/protecting its general and particular significations.
b) OLD AGE: Whenever the longitude of a planet in a particular sign is more than 25 degrees, it is said to be in the state of old age. Such a planet is incapable of fully promoting/protecting its general and particular significations.
c) OWN SIGN: A planet in its own sign is treated as strong and is capable of generating the expected results, provided it is otherwise strong.The own signs of various planets are as under: PLANET OWN SIGN SUN LEO MOON CANCER MARS ARIES, SCORPIO MERCURY GEMINI, VIRGO JUPITER SAGITTARIUS, PISCES VENUS TAURUS, LIBRA SATURN CAPRICORN, AQUARIUS
MOOLTRIKONA SIGNS : : A planet in its mooltrikona (MT) sign is treated as very powerful, provided it is otherwise strong.
Under the Systems' Approach, the mooltrikona signs of various planets are as under:
PLANET MOOLTRIKONA SIGN
SUN :L EO
MOON : CANCER
MARS : ARIES
JUPITER : SAGITTARIUS
VENUS : LIBRA
SATURN : AQUARIUS
e) EXALTATION: The planets are in the state of exaltation in particular signs and give good results by promoting/protecting their general and particular significations, provided they are otherwise strong.
The exaltation signs of various planets are as under :
f) DEBILITATION: The planets are in the state of debilitation in particular signs, and therefore weak, failing to fully protect/promote their general and particular significations. Rather, there can be deterioration in their ruling sub-periods.
The debilitation signs of various planets are as follows:
According with Systems’ Approach, the dispositor is a planet in whose mooltrikona sign another planet is located in the natal chart. Suppose in a natal chart the Sun is placed in the sign Libra ruled by Venus. In this case Venus will be the dispositor of the Sun. No planet which is in a non- mooltrikona sign will have a dispositor i.e. the planet(s) in Taurus, Gemini, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces have no dispositor. If a planet is posited in Aries, its dispositor would be Mars; if a planet is posited in Cancer, its dispositor would be the Moon; if a planet is posited in Leo, its dispositor would be the Sun; if a planet is posited in Virgo, its dispositor would be Mercury; if a planet is posited in Libra, its dispositor would be Venus; if a planet is posited in Sagittarius, its dispositor would be Jupiter; and if a planet is posited in Aquarius, its dispositor would be Saturn
g) COMBUSTION: Whenever a planet comes very near to the Sun, it is divested of its brightness (luster). The said state is called combustion. While in the state of combustion, the planets fail to fully protect/promote their general and particular significations. If such a planet is weak on other accounts too, the significations ruled by them do not even take birth.
The planets are said to be combust when they are within the below mentioned degrees on either side of the sun.
The revolution of the earth around its own axis causes the rise of all the 12 signs in the east at different points of time during the period of 24 hours in a clock-wise motion. The signs rise in seriatim,i.e., Aries first, then Taurus, followed by Gemini and so forth.
The Ascendant or Lagna is that point in the zodiac which rises at the time of birth of a person with reference to the place of birth.The position of planets in the zodiac is noted with reference to the earth.
The ascendant is the first house in a horoscope and the rest of the houses are reckoned from it.
The Rasi chart, which is known as birth chart or natal chart as well, can be drawn in many ways but for the purpose of our study, we will use only North Indian Style.
is the best form of drawing a chart as it provides a very easy comprehension of the chart
at a mere glimpse.It shows angles/planets
placed in angles without enumeration.
MALEFIC HOUSE/DUSTHANA HOUSESThe sixth, eighth and twelfth houses in a chart are known as dusthanas or malefic houses.It shows whether any planet is posited in the dusthanas.
Fifth and ninth houses are known as trines.
Even reckoning of aspects is very easy in this form of a birth chart. The Houses are always fixed.
The lordship of the houses is reckoned from the placement of signs in a particular house. The lord of the sign placed in a particular house is called the lord of the house.The counting of houses is done in an anti clockwise direction.
h) IN FRIENDLY SIGNS: When planets occupy the signs of their friendly planets, they are happy and feel free to produce results, if they are otherwise strong. The Sun, the Moon and Mars are friends and Jupiter is their preceptor. Saturn, Mercury, Rahu and Ketu are friends and Venus is their preceptor.
I) IN INIMICAL SIGNS: When planets occupy signs of their enemies, they do not find themselves comfortable to produce results expected of them. However, any sign from where a particular planet aspects its own mooltrikona sign is an exception to this rule and a planet in such a state does not find itself restricted to produce results.
j) AFFLICTED PLANETS: The afflictions to the planets or houses are caused by the close conjunction or aspect of the functional malefic planets in a nativity. Whenever a planet/house is already weak for any other reason and is under the close influence of any functional malefic, it is treated as an afflicted planet/house. But when the planet/house is not weak for other reasons, it can be considered afflicted either under the exact influence of a functional malefic for normal afflictions or under the orb of influence of two degrees for special/multiple afflictions, becoming a weak planet/house for that reason. So whenever any planet/house is afflicted, it becomes weak not being capable of fully protecting/promoting its general and particular significations. The significations of the houses having mooltrikona sign of an afflicted planet are harmed more when such planets are already weak for other reasons.
k) WEAK PLANETS: A weak planet is not capable of fully protecting/promoting its general and particular significations during the course of its sub-periods and the transit malefic influences. Any planet is considered weak if:
a) it is combust due to its nearness to the Sun.
b) it occupies malefic houses from the ascendant, ( Except when in its own mooltrikona sign.)
c) it occupies its sign of debilitation.(The planets are considered weak for all purposes if they occupy debilitated navamsa and are considered weak for specific purposes if they occupy the corresponding debilitated amsa. For example, if any planet is strong in rasi and navamsa, but debilitated in dasamsa, it makes it weak only for the purposes of the 10th house. But being debilitated in navamsa makes it weak regarding all its general and particular significations.)
d) it is in the state of infancy or old age.
e) it occupies debilitated sign in navamsa.
f) it occupies the mooltrikona sign of a weak planet.
g) it is the Moon within 72 degrees either side of the Sun.
h) it is conjunct or aspected by any functional malefic planet within an orb of one degree.
i) the most effective point of its house of placement is afflicted by a functional malefic planet within an orb of one degree. ( It only applies to nativities where the time of birth is correct.)
j) the most effective point of its mooltrikona house is afflicted by a functional malefic planet within an orb of one degree. ( In this case, the planet should be considered weak for the purposes of its particular significations only. It only applies also if the time of birth is correct.)
NOTE: in the last three points, when the affliction is special or multiple, i.e. when it comes from:
1) a conjunction with/ aspect from the most malefic planet,
2) an aspect of a functional malefic planet placed in a malefic house,
3) a conjunction with Rahu or Ketu (Rahu-Ketu axis),
4) an aspect of a functional malefic planet afflicted by other(s) functional malefic,
5) more than one functional malefic planet at the same time,
any otherwise "strong" planet should be considered afflicted (and weak) even when the orb of affliction is of two degrees.
l) STRONG PLANETS: A strong planet protects and promotes its general and particular significations. Any planet is considered strong when it is not in the state of weakness. It can increase its strength if:
a) its longitude is between 10º to 20º in a particular sign;
b) it occupies own or good navamsa and other divisions;
c) it is under the close influence of the strong functional benefic planets;
d) it occupies its exaltation, mooltrikona or own sign;
e) it closely influences the most effective point of the house.
According with Systems' Approach, the dispositor is a planet in whose mooltrikona sign another planet is located in the natal chart. Suppose in a natal chart the Sun is placed in the sign Libra ruled by Venus. In this case Venus will be the dispositor of the Sun. No planet which is in a non- mooltrikona sign will have a dispositor i.e. the planet(s) in Taurus, Gemini, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces have no dispositor. If a planet is posited in Aries, its dispositor would be Mars; if a planet is posited in Cancer, its dispositor would be the Moon; if a planet is posited in Leo, its dispositor would be the Sun; if a planet is posited in Virgo, its dispositor would be Mercury; if a planet is posited in Libra, its dispositor would be Venus; if a planet is posited in Sagittarius, its dispositor would be Jupiter; and if a planet is posited in Aquarius, its dispositor would be Saturn.
The divisional charts (DCs) are the charts which are drawn by division of houses for specialized analysis of a particular signification; for example navamsa for considering general fortune and marriage, etc., and dasamsa for considering professional aspects in a nativity. The methodology of study of the divisional charts has been brought out in the revised edition of author's book "HOW TO STUDY DIVISIONAL CHARTS" which readers may study after they have learnt the system in general.
Yogakaraka planets are those planets which own a kendra (angle) and a trikona (trine) in a particular nativity. These yogakarakas are first rate functional benefics and, when strong, produce excellent results by their close association/aspects with any particular planet/house.
The following planets become yogakarakas for the ascendant (lagnas) mentioned against each :-
MARS CANCER & LEO
VENUS CAPRICORN & AQUARIUS
SATURN TAURUS & LIBRA
In addition to ruling houses containing their signs, the planets also act as significators for various houses. The various planets act as significators for the houses indicated against each :-
|SUN||1st, 9th &10th houses|
|MARS||3rd &10th houses|
|MERCURY||6th & 10th houses|
|JUPITER||2nd, 5th, 9th & 11th houses|
|VENUS||4th, 7th & 12th houses|
|SATURN||Ayushkaraka (longevity) i.e. for the 8th house.|